Voices from The Gathering Place » Teachers


For those who are new to the inquiry approach the idea of being a "co-learner" instead of the expert who has all of the answers can be less than comfortable. For that reason this sample includes all of the answers to the questions raised. This format can then be applied to the other songs Please note that the views and opinions expressed in this inquiry example are those of the author, Peter White, and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Algoma District School Board.
Part 1:
A statement is presented to the students by the teacher and they are asked to think of questions they would ask. With the teacher’s guidance students will come up with questions such as the ones below. The teacher may have them research the answers and/or provide the information given below.
  • Before opening the webpage Pageant of St. Lusson teacher reads: “In 1671 a French military officer named Simon (See-moan) came to Sault Ste. Marie to claim it and all the land around it in the name of the king of France. If you  were an investigative reporter, what questions would you ask him?” If students are slow to respond, a useful encouragement for inquiry would be that the investigative reporter  doesn't want just the (sometimes uninteresting) facts but also wants to uncover the motivations of those involved.
    • Who already lived in Bawating (Sault Ste. Marie)?
      • The Anishinaabe (also called Ojibway, Ojibwe and Chippewa)
    • Why did the French want Sault Ste. Marie and the land around it?
      • They were in competition with the British for the exploration and ownership of Canada (although the land did not become Canada until 1867). When the French were in Canada they called it “New France.”
    • What is it supposed to mean, to “claim in the name of the king of France?”
      • Louis IV was an absolute ruler which meant that if he decided something was to be done then that’s the way it was. No one could question what the king did.
    • How did the people who lived here feel about Simon’s claim?
      • The Anishinaabe accepted Simon’s ceremony because they did not have the same idea of land ownership as the French and their king. As far as they were concerned, groups of people made agreements about how to share the land. Also, much of what Simon said in French was probably lost in translation to Anishinaabe. Lastly, it may well be that the translator, Nicholas Perrot, was careful in choosing his words so that there was not a negative reaction from the First Nations gathered for the Pageant.
Part 2:
Watch the video, “The Pageant of St. Lusson.” and then read through the "I wonder?" circles together.
After watching the video and reading the two "I wonder?" circles together, students are to look through the lyrics   and think of new questions that naturally arise. As an encouragement, tell them they are to question any phrase or motivation  they don't understand. A large number of questions/answers are given below. The teacher may have them research the answers and/or provide the information given.
  • What is a “Sieur”?
    • If a person had the word "Sieur" in front of their name, it simply meant "sir." People would say it as a sign of respect. For example, students often call their teachers "sir" today. The word is also pretty close to "monsieur" which means "gentleman." At this time in France "sieur" was used for people who had higher status than everyday people who owned land called a "lordship."
  • Who was Jean Baptiste Talon?
    • Talon was the Intendant of New France which means he was in charge of everything that happened in Canada on behalf of the Louis IV, the king of France. He controlled where people could live, what they were allowed to do for work and how they would be punished if they were in trouble.
  • Who were the coureurs-de-bois?
    • The phrase coureurs-de-bois means “runners of the woods” and they were the first fur traders in Canada. They were “unlicensed” which meant they did not have the official permission of the French king to trade for furs. Because of this, some of them had their whole shipment of furs was taken away by the New France authorities. The coureurs-de-bois were also some of the first explorers who reached parts of Canada before anyone else.
  • How long did it take for them to get from Montreal to Sault Ste. Marie?
    • 8 months
  • Why did it take so long for the journey? (For instance, why did they stop at Manitoulin Island for six months?)
    • The whole trip had to be done by canoe with many portages which meant that everything they had with them, including the canoe, had to be carried over land to avoid dangerous rapids. Also, the route was not well known at this point so they would regularly have to stop and evaluate the safety of their route. They stopped at Manitoulin Island because the water froze which made their canoes useless.
  • Who was Nicholas Perrot?
    • Perrot (c. 1644-1717) was a fur trader who had already been to Sault Ste. Marie and to further places like Green Bay by the time Simon made his trip.
  • What kind of guns were the Frenchmen shooting in 1671?
    • The Frenchmen fired flintlock muskets where a piece of flint hit a piece of steel which created sparks, setting gunpowder on fire which exploded and fired a small lead ball out of the barrel.
  • Who owns the land of Sault Ste. Marie now?
    • Some land is owned by the City of Sault Ste. Marie. Some land is owned by businesses. Some land is owned by homeowners. Some by the Canadian government. Whitefish Island is owned by the Batchawana First Nations.
  • What does it mean for a person, a city or a government to “own” land? What does it mean when you own something?
    • The French believed that the king owned any land identified as being a part of France. The Anishinaabe had a system of rules for who used certain pieces of land but no one “owned” it. The idea of the private ownership of land, such as a person’s home, did not exist yet.
  • What is meant by, “the idea [of owning land] is what has us in its ruthless little hand”?
    • Greed and envy have played a large role in the way humans decide who owns this or that piece of land.
  • What was the cross of Simon’s religion?
    • Christianity
  • Why was it important for Simon to have a cross for the ceremony?
    • At this time in history, anything that the king did was “backed up” or “approved of” by God. The cross being there said that when France claimed the land, God himself was supporting the French.
  • Why was it important for Simon to hold a piece of earth for the ceremony?
    • Symbolically, by holding one piece of the land, Simon was showing that all of the land was now the property of king Louis IV.
  • Why was it important for Simon to hold a sword for the ceremony?
    • The sword would show the power and strength of the French king to make such a claim. Anyone who stood in the way would have to answer to the might of the French army. As it turned out, Simon returned to Montreal and no officials from France returned until Louis de Repentigny built a fort at the Sault in 1752.
  • What does it mean to annex something?
    • To “annex” something is to add something on to what you already have. If you have ordered a meal deal at a fast food restaurant you might “add on” an order of onion rings. This means the next time you order food you can tell the worker you would like to “annex” some onion rings to your order. What France did was “add on” Canada to the country they already had.
  • What are “the royal arms of France?”
    • Most sports teams and schools have a logo and/or mascot. The royal arms was a piece of metal that had a drawing carved into it of the important symbols of France such as the fleur de lis (lily flower) or the king’s crown.
  • Why was it important for Simon to have metal plate with the royal arms of France for the ceremony?
    • Having the coat of arms present showed that the ceremony had the approval and authority of the French king.
  • What is Vexilla Regis and why did the Frenchmen sing it?
    • This is a religious hymn sung in Latin about the important symbols of Christianity. Like the cross, singing this hymn would show that God supported king Louis IV in claiming the land around Sault Ste. Marie for France.
  • What does “Vive le Roy!” mean?
    • Long live the king!
  • Who was Allouez?
    • Claude Jean Allouez was a French Jesuit priest. The priests believed it was their duty to convert First Nations people to Christianity and so they often traveled with fur traders and government representatives. Many of them ended up being explorers themselves.
  • What does it mean to “harangue” someone?
    • To harangue is to lecture someone in an aggressive manner
  • Who was William Warren?
    • William Warren, 1825-1853, was an historian, interpreter, and legislator in the Minnesota territory. He discusses the Pageant of St. Lusson in his book, History of the Ojibway People, Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements, which was published more than 30 years after his death.
  • Who was Louis the 14th?
    • Louis XIV was the king of France in 1671.
  • What is meant by, “The British had moved in”?
    • By 1771 the British had replaced the French as the official European presence Canada.
  • What does Pierre mean when he says, “traders just like me, French, English and native carried on, whoever owns the flag you find a way to sing along”?
    • People find a way to do the things they need to do, to survive and hopefully to thrive no matter who commands authority.
Part 3:
“The Concepts of Social Studies Thinking” as outlined in the 2013 Ontario Curriculum document.
  • Questions about SIGNIFICANCE
  • Had anyone else ever “claimed” Bawating/Sault Ste. Marie? Did anyone claim it after that?
    • This ceremony was the first European claim to the land around Bawating
    • In 1750, Louis XIV granted 214,000 acres at the Sault (including all of Sault Ste. Marie) to Louis le Gardeur, Sieur de Repentigny. He built a fort but after New France was lost to the British he never returned.
  • What was the short-term and long-term impact?
    • There was little short-term impact because the French did not follow up their claim with any actions such as building a fort, setting up governing people/institutions or displacing the Anishinaabe.
    • the long-term impact of European land claims and settlement was very significant for the Anishinaabe. Their way of life was permanently changed.
  • What happened after the ceremony?
    • Did the French move in?
      • No.
    • Did the First Nations have to leave?
      • No.
  • If nothing happened, why do Europeans live at Sault Ste. Marie now? Why do the First Nations people live north and east of Sault Ste. Marie?
    • It was a long time before Europeans finally settled in Sault Ste. Marie. In 1850 there was a treaty – the Robinson-Huron Treaty – between the Anishinaabe and the government of Britain, (Canada wasn’t Canada yet, it was still a colony of Britain!), which created the Batchewana and Garden River reserves.
  • Why did the French do this ceremony at this time?
    • The reason for the land claim ceremony was the British presence in Hudson’s Bay. In 1670 the king of Britain authorized the creation of the Hudson’s Bay fur trading company. The French wanted to head off any claims the British might make to the land.
  • What happened to the Anishinaabe way of living as more Europeans came to Sault Ste. Marie?
    • For the Anishinaabe:
      • The loss of the rapids fishery as their livelihood
      • The loss of their position as the governing leaders of Bawating
      • The loss of the established social structure due to attempted assimilation to European ways
  • What happened to the French? Why don’t they “own” Sault Ste. Marie anymore?
    • For the French:
      • The lost their claim to the land around Bawating as well as Canada
      • The lost their position as the primary trade partners of the Anishinaabe
      • The lost their status as the primary European presence in Bawating as well as Canada
  • How has the land and environment changed at Bawating/Sault Ste. Marie since 1671?
    • For the land:
      • The conversion of the water flow of the rapids to power dams
      • The insertion of shipping locks where the rapids flowed
      • The creation of industry that has, at different times, polluted the river
  • Is there anything remaining today of that ceremony like a plaque or a statue?
    • One long term memory of the event is the illuminated cross on the hill overlooking Sault Canada. The actual ceremony, meanwhile, took place on the other side of the river, in what is today Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.
  • What was Bawating like before the Europeans came? What was it like for the First Nations people who lived here?
    • At the time of the Pageant of St. Lusson ceremony, Bawating (Sault Ste. Marie) had been an important centre for trade among First Nations people for a long time. It was a place where First Nations from many different clans would meet together to make agreements, trade goods and practice their beliefs. It was also a time to enjoy being together because winters were usually spent in the woods in small groups because food was much harder to come by at that time of year. The First Nations did not think about owning land in the same way that the French did. They were intensely spiritual and believed that they were sharing the land with the all of its other inhabitants; the animals, the fish, the trees, the rivers, the rocks and everything else. It was more an attitude of, "we are all asking for what we need from the land and will only be given what we need if we respect the spirits of the land", (the animals, fish, trees, rivers, rocks etc.).
  • How did the French think about “owning” pieces of land?
    • The French had a very different idea of owning land. At this time France had a king and it was the king who owned all the land in France. If someone was allowed to have some land for a business, a Church, a farm or anything else, it was only because the king allowed them to do so and if the king decided they could no longer be on some piece of land, there was nothing they could do about it. This is why the French, when they first came to Canada, called it “New” France. To them this meant that the same rule about the king owning all the land in France meant that the king could also own all the land in Canada. All he had to do was say so. And this is why the king had Jean Baptiste Talon tell Simon Francis Daumont to go to Sault Ste. Marie and claim Canada in the name of the French king.
  • Why wasn’t there a battle with the French after they claimed the land where the First Nations people lived?
    • The First Nations of Bawating (Sault Ste. Marie) did not have to start living by new French rules or pay taxes to the king of France or even have more officials like Simon Francis Daumont living at Bawating. After the ceremony, Simon went back to Quebec and life pretty much continued as it always had at Bawating. This meant that there was not any conflict between the French and First Nations when the ceremony was held.
  • Why was it easy for the First Nations and French people at the ceremony to misunderstand what each other were saying?
    • One reason for this was that the First Nations people did not speak French and the French did not speak Ojibway so they literally did not know what each other were saying unless a translator, a person who knew both languages, such as Nicholas Perrot, explained what was being said. Even when the words were translated, though, the First Nations had very different understandings of what certain words and ideas mean. They actually thought the French were pledging their friendship and a promise of protection to the First Nations people in the same way that their other First Nations trading partners do.
Prep: go to the Teacher section and print enough copies of the song lyrics for your class
  1. Visit Voices from the Gathering Place homepage select the link Song Stories.
  2. Select JEAN BAPTISTE CADOTTE and click that link.
  3. Play the video.
  4. Read the content of each story (REPENTIGNY and ATHANASIE) found just below the song video as a class and encourage class discussion with the questions asked.
  5. If desired, play the video again to prepare students for the memory game.
  6. Hand out the lyric sheets if you are allowing students to use them for the game.
  7. As the game is played you will see inquiry research topics appear with each answer. At this point tell students that they will be choosing one of these inquiry topics for a project. They may also create a topic of their own from the song lyrics e.g. “fleur-de-lis”. (Please note that the full list of inquiry topics can be found in the Teacher section.)
  8. Information below song provide a template for the inquiry project which could include:
    1. A brief paragraph giving information about the topic
    2. Writing in a style that fellow students can easily understand i. e. Putting formal writing in their own words; explaining unfamiliar words.
    3. Questions related to the information topic to stimulate thinking and discussion between the presenters and their classmates e.g. “What would you do if . . .”
    4. A picture or two that enhance the written information
Welcome Home
  • Inquiry - research the Ojibway migration story.
  • Inquiry - research the songs of the voyageurs and why music was so important to them.
  • Inquiry - research the European priests of the 1600s who wanted to convert the First Nations people to Christianity.
  • Inquiry - research the life of John Johnston and his Chippewa (Ojibway) wife Susan.
  • Inquiry - research the life of Charles Ermatinger and his Chippewa (Ojibway) wife Mannanowe.
  • Inquiry - research why the British were called "redcoats."
  • Inquiry - research the Great Lakes and how they were named.
  • Inquiry - research the French people like the "filles de Roi"  who immigrated to New France in the 1600s.
  • Inquiry - research the life of Samuel de Champlain.
  • Inquiry - research the Huron people.
  • Inquiry - research the Seneca people.
  • Inquiry - research the beliefs and rituals of the Huron and other First Nations people.
Point Iroquois
  • Inquiry - research the wars between the Iroquois and Ojibway First Nations.
  • Inquiry - research the peace treaty that was finally agreed upon between the Iroquois and Ojibway First Nations.
  • Inquiry - research the story of Garden River First Nation.
  • Inquiry - research where the names "Sault Ste. Marie" and "Bawating" (the name the Anishinaabe had always called it) came from.
  • Inquiry - research the role of the medicine man among  Ojibway First Nations people.
  • Inquiry - research the Crane Ojibway dodem (clan) who were prominent in Sault Ste. Marie.
The Pageant of Saint-Lusson
  • Inquiry - research the life of Jean Baptiste Talon. How did he get the job of intendant? Was he a good intendant
  • Inquiry - research the voyageurs. Who were they? what was the voyageur life like?
  • Inquiry - research the role of Montreal during the fur trade times.
  • Inquiry - research what Britain did in 1670 that caused France to hold this ceremony in 1671. Hint - Britain formed a new company named after the explorer Henry Hudson...
  • Inquiry - research Louis the 14th's involvement with colonizing New France.
  • Inquiry - research how long it would take to travel from Montreal to Sault Ste. Marie today by car. How would you describe the differences between the trip in 1671 and today?
Alexander Henry
  • Inquiry - research the seven-year war between England and France that ended in 1762.
  • Inquiry - research how the French Canadienne voyageurs dressed and how it was different from an English fur trader.
  • Inquiry - research why the Ojibway (Anishinaabe) Chiefs were friendly toward the French and hostile toward the English at this time.
  • Inquiry - research the role of the pipe and tobacco in Ojibway (Anishinaabe) life.
  • Inquiry - research what items that European voyageurs brought to trade with First Nations people. Why would First Nations people value such items?
  • Inquiry - research what happened between France and England in 1762 that made Alexander Henry think it was a good idea to do fur trading in the Mackinaw and Sault Ste. Marie area.
  • Inquiry - research what would be thought of as valuable possessions among First Nations of this time. What do we think of as valuable possessions today? How do the two differ?
  • Inquiry - research lacrosse and other sports/games traditionally played by the Ojibways (Anishinaabe).
Massacre at Mackinaw
  • Inquiry - research what "country" Fort Mackinaw was part of in 1763. Was it Ojibway (Anishinaabe) territory? Was it New France? Was it Canada? Was it the United States?
  • Inquiry - research the Pontiac rebellion against the English.
  • Inquiry - research the winter Alexander Henry spent with Wawatum and his family described in Henry's book, "Alexander Henry's Travels and adventures in the years 1760-1776". (Available free online)
  • Inquiry - research the 1763 battle at Fort Mackinaw. How many people died? Were they all soldiers? How many survived? What are the details of how the Ojibways tricked the English?
Jean Baptiste Cadotte
  • Inquiry - research what life was like in New France (Quebec) around 1723. What did people do for a living? Was it a hard or easy life? What made it hard or easy?
  • Inquiry - research the battle on the Plains of Abraham.
  • Inquiry - research the status of the Ojibway (Anishinaabe) language today. How many people still speak it? Why don't all Ojibways speak the language? Will the Ojibway language survive?
  • Inquiry - research the history of the fur trade in the Sault Ste. Marie area (include Mackinac) and/or research the history of copper mining around Lake Superior and Lake Huron.
  • Inquiry - research the history meaning of the wampum belt for First Nations people. Why did they often make serious agreements with a wampum belt? What did an agreement made by Wampum belt mean to them?
  • Inquiry - research the history and meaning of the fleurs-de-lis for French people.
John Johnston
  • Inquiry - research what life was like in Ireland in this time period (c. 1762-1790). What was life like for the upper classes (like John's family), the merchants or the farmers?
  • Inquiry - research what it was like to travel from Europe to North America on a wooden sailing ship in those days.
  • Inquiry - research the cutthroat competition that was common between independent fur traders and fur trading companies like the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company.
  • Inquiry - research how First Nations wives were essential to the survival of the fur traders and the stories of them being abandoned by their husbands unlike John Johnston and Charles Ermatinger who stayed with their Anishinaabe wives for life.
  • Inquiry - research the life and career of John Johnston during his time at Sault Ste. Marie.
  • Inquiry - research the stories of voyageurs who both fell in love and stayed with their First Nations wives, creating the Métis people.
  • Inquiry - research the warfare between the Chippewas (Anishinaabe) and the Sioux (and others).
  • Inquiry - research the role of birds in Chippewa (Anishinaabe) stories and beliefs.
  • Inquiry - research the role of nature  in Chippewa (Anishinaabe) stories and beliefs.
  • Inquiry - research the role of dreams and visions in Chippewa (Anishinaabe) stories and beliefs.
  • Inquiry - research the methods of warfare used by the Chippewa (Anishinaabe) in this time period (c. 1747-1793)
  • Inquiry - research the role of animals in Chippewa (Anishinaabe) stories and beliefs.
  • Inquiry - research the history of the city of Montreal. When was it founded? What was Montreal like in the years Charles Ermatinger was growing up (1780 - 1800)?
  • Inquiry - research the fur trading career of Charles Ermatinger or any other well known fur trader.
  • Inquiry - research the life and career of Mananowe's famous father, Chief Ka-ta-wa-be-da (Broken Tooth).
  • Inquiry - research the war of 1812. Why did it start? How did it end? How did the geography of the United States and Canada change at the end of the war?
  • Inquiry - research the capture of Fort Mackinaw in 1812.
  • Inquiry - research which countries other fur traders like John Johnston, Jean Baptiste Cadotte, Alexander Henry or others came from.
Henry Schoolcraft
  • Inquiry - research the history of the town of Guilderland where Henry Schoolcraft was born. Do they recognize Henry Schoolcraft today in some way like a building or a street?
  • Inquiry - research how many books Henry Schoolcraft wrote and how many ways he left his mark in northern Michigan and Ontario. For example, guess where the name "Algoma" came from?
  • Inquiry - research what the role of an Indian Agent was. By the way, Schoolcraft's Indian Agent office is still standing. It is one of the few original buildings dating back to the 1820s in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan.
  • Inquiry - research the homemade magazine that Henry Schoolcraft made with the help of his extended family called "The Literary Voyageur". It contains poems by him and his Anishinaabe/Irish wife Jane Schoolcraft.
  • Inquiry - research Anishinaabe stories and learn about some of the important characters, the lessons that the stories taught and how important nature was for them.
  • Inquiry - research  who has "owned" Sault Ste. Marie. When did the Anishinaabe come to Bawating (their name for Sault Ste. Marie?) When did the French declare they "owned " Sault Ste. Marie? When did the British declare they "owned" Sault Ste. Marie? When did Sault Ste. Marie split into two countries?
  • Inquiry - research what Canada was like in 1800. Had any Treaties been made with First Nations people?  Where did most of the Euro-Canadians (people who came from Europe) live in Canada? How did people earn a living? What did they do for fun?
  • Inquiry - research why Jane needed to go all the way to Ireland for her education. Were there schools in Sault Ste. Marie then? Why did fur traders often send their children away, often to Montreal, for school?
  • Inquiry - research the poetry and writings of Jane Schoolcraft, the first ever published First Nations poet.
  • Inquiry - research the drug laudanum and why it was used in the 1800s. Research other drugs, in the past or today, that started out being helpful but ended up causing addictions.
  • Inquiry - research how First Nations people experienced racism in the early 1800s. Research how First Nations people feel about racism today.
  • Inquiry - research what life was like for people with European fathers and First Nations mothers in the 1800s. In Canada we now call them Métis but back then they were called "half-breeds" or "mixed-bloods".
John Tanner
  • Inquiry - research what life was like for the young John Tanner
  • Inquiry - research what happened on the day of John Tanner's abduction. Hint: search online for his autobiography.
  • Inquiry - research the Shawnee tribe.
  • Inquiry - research the discovery of John Tanner among the Anishinaabe and his trip back to Kentucky.
  • Inquiry - research the problems that have happened in agreements like Treaties when
  • Inquiry - research the history of Fort Brady, the fort at Sault Ste. Marie.
  • Inquiry - research dwellings of the Anishinaabe. What was used besides birch bark? How were they made?
  • Inquiry - research the importance of the sun, moon and the four directions in Anishinaabe traditional beliefs.
  • Inquiry - research the life and career of Shingwaukonse and his involvement in  the war of 1812, the Mica Bay mine takeover, the Robinson-Huron Treaty and education for his people.
  • Inquiry - research the importance of flags and ceremony for the
  • Inquiry - research  traditional Anishinaabe singing and drumming.
  • Inquiry - research the visions of Shingwaukonse's great-great grandson
Mica Bay
  • Inquiry - research the mineral copper. Why is it useful? What is it used for?
  • Inquiry - research the life and accomplishments of Chief Shingwauk.
  • Inquiry - research the life of Allan MacDonell
  • Inquiry - research what a Treaty is. Research the Robinson-Huron Treaty.
  • Inquiry - research the job of a lawyer.  What do they do? How do they help people?
  • Inquiry - research how media like newspapers and social media can change people's opinions.
Old John Prince
  • Inquiry - research John Prince's life up until he moved to Canada. Hint: the Dictionary of Canadian Biography.
  • Inquiry - research what a person has to do today to immigrate from another country to Canada.
  • Inquiry - research the Upper Canada Rebellion
  • Inquiry - research what happened to other prisoners captured in the Upper Canada Rebellion.
  • Inquiry - research what Sault Ste. Marie is like today. What kinds of jobs to people have?
  • How many people live here? What do people like/dislike about Sault Ste. Marie today?
  • Inquiry - research what alcohol can do to the body and the lives of people when it is abused.
Major Joe
  • Inquiry - research the country of Scotland including the difference between the Highlanders and the Lowlanders.
  • Inquiry - research what a Customs Officer does.
  • Inquiry - research what police officers today do when someone is caught doing something wrong. How is it different from the little village back in 1843?
  • Inquiry - research what happens when people try to bring items from one country to another without "declaring" them and paying duty to the Customs Officer.
  • Inquiry - research the Fenian raids of 1866 - 1871.
  • Inquiry - research how the Indian Act created by the Canadian Government affected the lives of First Nations people. Hint: watch the Chief Dean Sayers video, "What is an Indian Agent?"
The River
  • Inquiry - research what life was like for the Anishinaabe before settlers came. Hint: watch "What was Bawating like before the settlers, "Why was Bawating an important meeting place," and "How was Bawating governed before the settlers."
  • Inquiry - research the names of the places (cities, towns, rivers, lakes, Provinces etc.) to find out which ones come from a First Nations  word. Hint: start with "Canada."
  • Inquiry - research marriage practices and famous wars in Anishinaabe history. Hint: for war history watch the videos Point Iroquois and Wa-bo-jeeg.
  • Inquiry - research the creation of the border between Canada and the United States. Why would First Nations people say that the border should not apply to them?
  • Inquiry - research what makes waterways like St. Mary's River and Lake Superior healthy and what harms them.
  • Inquiry - research and compare the differences between the two "Sault Ste. Maries." Think about things like population, what people do for work, what people enjoy  doing in their free time, how their city government works etc.
* digital copies of many of the books below can easily be found online.
* Teachers: primary sources such as John Tanner's autobiography sometimes use words to refer to First Nations people that are no longer acceptable today. This is a great opportunity to teach students how and why the way people see the world changes over time.
  • Alexander Henry's Travels and Adventures in the Years 1760-1776 Alexander Henry, 1809
  • The Canoe: Portraits of the Great Fur Trade Canoes
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online
  • The Ermatinger Old Stone House Gladys McNiece, Charles Carrington, Fran Rideout 1984
  • History of the Ojibway People William Warren, 1885
  • Historical and Statistical Information, Respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the Indian tribes of the United States Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, 1851
  • The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents Reuben Thwaites,1896
  • John Prince, A Collection of Documents John Prince, R. Alan Douglas Editor, 1980
  • Karl Hele, Sault Star articles about early Sault Ste. Marie history from a First Nations perspective
    • Odd couple overcame the odds
    • Métis George Johnston a regional mover and shaker
    • First Nations never consulted on international border pacts
    • Desire for peace, diplomacy saved Sault Ste. Marie region
    • Ability and merit determined Algoma’s first judge
    • American Indians recognized by U.S. as ’Indian’ not necessarily seen as such in Canada
    • Mica Bay foreshadows New Brunswick shale gas blockade
    • Who exactly is an Indian? Confusion, misinformation and the Supreme Court of Canada
    • Reluctant champion’ of Anishinaabeg rights, Richard Carney attempted to establish rule of law based on ‘fairness’
    • American Baptist Foreign Missionary Society boasted plenty of drama, provided lessons
    • Promise held by Royal Proclamation of 1763 has largely gone unfulfilled
    • Missionization ‘deeply’ disturbed Anishinaabeg beliefs, sacred sites
    • Political development for some spelled hardship for others
    • Pact paved way for legalized British occupation of St. Joe
    • Spring increasingly became season of mixed blessings
    • Pacts determined later leasing rights
    • Anishinaabe Christianity never washed with missionaries, settlers
    • Second instalment of Col. John Prince profile sums up stormy legacy
    • Don’t tag treaties for First Nations’ economic woes
    • Settlers’ rights exist because of treaties — not in spite of them
    • Minister defended his community and congregation
    • Sault, area First Nation history, remains mystery to many
    • Listen up, Ottawa: Past efforts to assimilate First Nations failed
    • History shows action speaks much more loudly than words
    • Increased annuities, issuance of back payments, steps toward reconciliation
    • Factors for low Aboriginal voter turnout vary
    • McMurray finds way to Sault, spreads 'blessings of the gospel'
  • Kitchi-Gami: Wanderings around Lake Superior Johann Georg Kohl, I860
  • The Legacy of Shingwaukonse: A Century of Native Leadership Janet E. Chute, 1998, Sault Ste. Marie Public Library
  • Library and Archives Canada
  • The Life of a Voyageur
  • The Literary Voyageur Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Jane Johnston Schoolcraft et al, circa 1822
  • A Narrative of the Captivity and Adventures of John Tanner, (U.S. Interpreter at the Sault de Ste. Marie,) during Thirty Years Residence among the Indians in the Interior of North America John Tanner, Edwin James,1830
  • Narrative Journal of Travels Through the Northwestern Regions of the United States: Extending from Detroit Through the Great Chain of American Lakes Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, 1821
  • Our town: Sault Ste. Marie, Canada. Articles from the Sault Star by Aileen Collins Aileen Collins, 1963
  • “Return to “Civilization” John Tanner's Troubled Years at Sault Ste. Marie” in Minnesota History John T. Fierst, 1986
  • The River of History Museum, Sault Ste. Marie, MI
  • The Sound the Stars Make Rushing Through the Sky: The Writings of Jane Johnston Schoolcraft Jane Johnston Schoolcraft, Robert Dale Parker Editor 2008
  • The Story of Baw-a-ting; Being the Annals of Sault Sainte Marie Edward Capp, 1904
  • William W. Warren: the Life, Letters, and Times of an Ojibwe Leader Theresa M. Schenck, 2007
  • Virtual Exhibit of the History of New France Museum of History
  • The Voyageurs
  • A Year in the Life of a Canoe  Brigade